The Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics is one of the four constituent departments of the School of Dental Sciences. It was established in 1984 as a Division in the Department of Dentistry housed in the then Faculty of Medicine to teach a combined course in paediatric dentistry (dentistry for children) and orthodontics (management of maligned jaws and teeth). Together with three other clinical departments in the School of Dental Sciences they act as a referral center for patients with complex oral/facial and dental problems from all parts of the nation of Kenya, Eastern Africa and the Great Lake Regions. The Department also caters for children in the peri-urban and urban Nairobi. On average four thousand patients are seen annually in the School of Dental Sciences Hospital of which fifty percent of the patients are attended to in the department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics. These are children aged between zero and 15 years. The last national census (1999) for Kenya reported 44% of the national population as children aged less than 15 years of which 20% are children below 5 years; hence the Department has an important role of looking after the oral health of a significant proportion of the population of the Nation.